Business Stainless Steel grades are essentially alloys of iron with more than 10.5% chromium. These grades may contain additional elements of nickel, manganese, carbon, nitrogen and silicon. They can further be modified for special purposes by addition of molybdenum, titanium, niobium, silicon, sulphur etc. A wide range of these grades have been developed based on specific requirements. These are classified into following categories based on their micro structure: Ferritic Stainless Steel Ferritic Stainless Steel grades are non-hardenable plain chromium grades with chromium content varying from 10.5% to 28% and with low carbon content. These are magnetic and exhibit a better resistance to corrosion than martensitic grades. These grades are employed in applications where the desired formability, weldability and corrosion resistance is between those of martensitic and austenitic types. The ferritics can be polished or buffed to achieve high lustre. Martensitic Stainless Steel Martensitic Stainless Steel grades are plain chromium grades containing 11.5 % to 18% of chromium with relatively high carbon content (0.1% 1.2%). Initially developed for cutlery, these are well suited for applications requiring high hardness and resistance to abrasion and erosion. These grades are magnetic and display fair cold forming characteristics. Although these can be hardened by air-cooling, oil quenching is sometimes used to assure uniform hardening. These grades can beDuplex Stainless Steel welded but require stress relieving after welding. They exhibit their best corrosion resistance in the hardened condition and perform well in mildly corrosive environments. Martensitic Stainless Steel grades are .monly used for knife blades, turbine blades, surgical instruments, fasteners, shafts, spindles, valves and pins. Austenitic Stainless Steel Austenitic Stainless Steel grades are characterized by superior corrosion and oxidation resistance, weldability, ductility and toughness .pared to ferritic and martensitic Stainless Steel grades for similar levels of chromium. Austenitic Stainless Steel grades exhibit excellent resistance to atmospheric corrosion. They effectively withstand attack of organic acids (e.g. acetic, lactic, citric etc.), exhibit good resistance to oxidizing acids (e.g. nitric acid) and fair resistance to mineral acids (e.g. sulfuric acid). These grades are well suited for severe forming. Some grades work harden to a high degree while others have been developed to minimize this tendency. Work hardening is advantageous in certain cases where high strength is required. Austenitic Stainless Steel grades are non-magnetic in annealed condition but depending on .position, they may be.e mildly magnetic when cold worked. These Stainless Steel grades possess good high temperature properties such as creep strength and resistance to oxidation or scaling. They also exhibit excellent low temperature ductility and impact strength. Austenitic Stainless Steel grades can be readily fabricated by bending, drawing, spinning, punching, drilling, machining and welding and can be readily polished to a high finish. These attributes make them very versatile and popular for diverse applications in a variety of industries. There are two broad categories of Austenitic Stainless Steel chrome-nickel (300 Series) and chrome-manganese (200 Series). Currently, chrome-nickel is the largest produced Stainless Steel category globally. Typical applications for this category include food processing, chemical plants, pharmaceutical equipment, hospitals, textile, architectural, building construction, kitchenware, consumer durables etc. Chrome-manganese Stainless Steel is the fastest growing of all Stainless Steel categories on account of its high performance to cost ratio. Its applications include kitchenware, cutlery, sinks, automotive trim, architectural, buildings, furniture, buses, trains and ornamental tubes. Duplex Stainless Steel Duplex Stainless Steel grades contain relatively high chromium (between 18% and 28%) and moderate amounts of nickel (1% to 8%). This .bination of ferritic and austenitic structures is called duplex. Many of these grades contain molybdenum (1% to 5%) and nitrogen (0.05% to 0.3%). Some duplex Stainless Steel grades also contain manganese (up to 5%), copper (up to 2%) and tungsten (up to 2%). These grades exhibit high resistance to stress corrosion cracking and chloride ion attack and have higher yield strength than that of austenitic or ferritic steel grades. These properties .bined with suitable design lead to material saving. High quality fabrication and welding are possible if the operator is trained well. These grades are used in marine applications, offshore platforms, paper and pulp industry, chemical, petrochemical and desalination plants. About the Author: 相关的主题文章:


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